The .30-06 arrived on the scene at the dawn of the 20th century. An American response to the power of the 7mm Mauser used by Spanish troops in the Spanish American War, the .30-06 became the preferred infantry cartridge of the United States Army in the War to End All Wars, and the one after that.
The .30-06 served well in the bolt-action Springfield used by Doughboys in the trenches of Northern France in World War I, and in the M-1 Garand during World War II.
All this emphasis on military uses makes the .30-06 the most researched American cartridge of all time.
The United States Army, Navy, and Marine Corp all conducted extensive ballistic tests on the .30-06 before adopting it as their standard combat platform.
With that data to draw from, we have extensive information to draw from as the .30-06 left the military realm and became one of the most popular sporting cartridges ever introduced on the North American continent.
How far can a 30-06 shoot accurately?
That’s the million dollar question engineers ask when the .30-06 was initially introduced.
The Army Field Manual from 1942 makes the claim that the maximum range of a .30-06 is 3500 yards, that’s just about two miles, but the effective range is much shorter just 503 yards.
Those metrics have changed a bit in the modern age with boxed ammunition by various suppliers offering a surprising variety of accuracy, based solely on bullet design, type of powder, and grains of powder in a shell.
The 180 grain Hornady American Whitetail cartridge has the best ballistics of any commercially available .30-06 cartridge. Claims are that it can accurately hit a target at 800 yards.
Effective range of a 30-06?
Effective range and accuracy range are two different things. A .30-06 is first and foremost a big game caliber. It’s taken many deer, elk, moose, black bear, and caribou over the last century.
But effective range means ethical killing range, that magic number of 1000 foot pounds delivered on target.
Accuracy is a different metric, with a scope calibrated for an arching drop of the .30-06 round over long distances, you can compensate and routinely hit long range targets.
The .30-06 isn’t a long range platform. That honor belongs to its sister cartridge the .308, and more recently to specific long range calibers such as the .338 Lapua and the 6.5mm Creedmoor.
If you’re into long range target shooting, look somewhere else besides the venerable .30-06.
If you’re looking for an established hunting caliber with a long history of successfully harvesting big game, the .30-06 fills that niche nicely.
Big game and the 30-06
The .30-06 remains near the top in preference for elk hunting. Those big bulls dotting the mountains and foothills of the west from Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana onto the Pacific Coast are often taken with a .30-06.
The power of .30-06 is more than enough to take down the largest bull at ranges up to 500 yards. If you’re after elk, there are specific cartridges designed just for that use. We’ll discuss them later.
You most likely heard the term .30-06 mentioned when you were a kid by your dad, uncles, or grandpa when they were talking about deer hunting.
The .30-06 is popular across the USA and Canada, with the generalization that the further west you hunt, the more likely you are to see many other hunters packing a .30-06.
Many hunters regard it as the heavy artillery of the hunting world. That’s partially because of the variety of heavy bullets it can fire, but mostly because of the overwhelmingly loud muzzle blast, you’ll hear from many styles of .30-06.
They are a great mid-range platform, well suited for shots across open meadows, through brush, and across sagebrush flats, all the terrain most commonly found in the west.
A few moose are taken at long range, but this largest member of the deer family is most often harvested at ranges closer than 200-yards.
The power and accuracy of the .30-06 at these distances make it a preferred round for hunting moose.
Canadian and American hunters both have an affinity for the .30-06 when pursuing moose, even the huge Canadian varieties.
Is a 30-06 good for long range hunting?
Long range is a term that has taken on new meaning in recent years. From the 1930s to the early 1980s, a long range shot was something between 250 and 400-yards.
We now consider that distance a mid-range shot. With the arrival of specialty calibers, designed exclusively to deliver a knockdown punch at 600, 700, or 800 yards, the .30-06 lost status as a long range shooting option.
With hunters reporting kill shots with .338 Lapua and 6.5 Creedmoor beyond 1,000 yards, the .30-06 is no longer considered an effective long range caliber.
Variety – the magic of the .30-06
Wander the aisles of your local sporting goods store, or peruse the bewildering offerings of .30-06 shells at your favorite online ammunition site and the sheer number of configurations will overwhelm you.
There were always options with hand loaded custom cartridges for heavier bullets, faster muzzle velocity, and longer effective range, but now the boxed ammo on the shelves matches and exceeds the old days of custom cartridges.
You can purchase .30-06 shells from 125 grain bullets to whopping 220 grain sizes.
The muzzle velocity of a .30-06 can be as slow as 2400 feet per second when firing a Federal-Power-Shok 220 grain cartridge, to a blistering 3,140 feet per second speed with that same Power-Shok shell case carrying a much smaller 125 grain bullet.
In the world of ballistics, we’ve all heard that power is speed combined with weight. That’s true when it comes to stopping power at a distance with a big game animal.
But the ballistics can be deceiving with the .30-06 due to the wide variety of configurations available.
The 220 grain round for example is only effective to 391 yards when delivering the minimum required 1000 foot-pounds of force.
While it’s much lighter 125-grain bullet fired from the same shell casing is nearly equal at 383 yards for the 1000 pound shot.
The ideal cartridge for distance, and stopping power is something in between, the 180 grain Hornady American Whitetail.
Buy a box of these little beauties from Hornady, and shoot a long way, while delivering serious stopping power.
You’ve probably heard that the .30-06 has outlived its usefulness as a viable hunting caliber. That is simply not the case.
The .03-06 remains one of the oldest, yet most effective calibers on the hunting market. It remains an icon among hunters as well and is often not only an heirloom passed down from generation to generation, but the go to cartridge of choice for serious big game hunters.
The image of the venerable .30-06 is a fixture in old magazine covers and stories from the 1940s to the 1970s.
It is a cartridge that won two world wars and freed the world from tyranny just three generations ago.
We can’t hope to discover how many elk, deer, pronghorn, and moose have been taken with a .30-06, but when the question comes up around the campfire as to which caliber has taken the most big game. The .30-06 is definitely in the conversation.